We will explore the various stages involved in new building construction and design. We aim to provide you with a simplified understanding of the construction process.
Stages of New Building Construction
1. Location Selection
The first crucial step in building your dream home is selecting the right location. It’s essential to identify a suitable plot of land that aligns with your preferences. Consulting an architect, particularly one well-versed in Vastu principles and local building regulations, is advisable. The architect can assess the plot’s suitability, taking into account Vastu principles, soil conditions, and current building regulations.
Additionally, it is vital to check with local authorities, such as the Panchayath, municipality, or Corporation, to ensure there are no objections to constructing a house on your chosen plot. Verify that your plot has no legal complications as well.
2. Design Process
Before meeting with an architect, create a preliminary list of your home’s requirements. This list should encompass fundamental aspects of your home, including living spaces, the number of bedrooms, guest rooms, halls, kitchens, bathrooms, stair placement, car porch, garden landscaping, and ponds, if desired. Involve your family in this process to gather their preferences and suggestions. Talk to friends and neighbours about the pros and cons of their properties and potential improvements.
3. Funding and Budgeting
Determining the cost of building your house is essential. Construction costs in Kerala have increased significantly. The current rate per square foot, including materials and labour, typically ranges from 1800 to 3500+ Rs. Assess your available funds and consider approaching banks for loans to determine your budget.
4. Engaging an Architect
Arrange a meeting with architects and discuss your design goals. Once you’ve selected an architect, they will create preliminary schematics considering functionality, room layouts, furniture positioning, and space utilization.
Structural changes may be recommended to optimize space. The architect will develop 2D sketches and refine them into a 3D model. Consult with the architect and their team to finalize the 3D model and elevation. The approved architect will then prepare drawings for approval from the local governing bodies, such as the Panchayat, City Municipality, or Corporation.
5. Building Permits
Local authorities issue permits for building your home, typically valid for two years.
6. Choosing a Building Contractor
Selecting a reliable building contractor is a significant task. Ideally, you should identify builders, plumbers, and mechanical, and electrical contractors. However, finding a trustworthy and cost-effective contractor can save you time and money.
Inquire about their work methods, and reliability, and visit their previous projects to speak with clients. If the contractor has good credentials, and technical expertise, and delivers quality work, consider hiring them.
7. Construction Process
a. Site Clearance: Clear the site of unwanted elements like grass and boulders. Level the ground, fill pits, and remove excess earth as needed, a process known as site clearance.
b. Ground Breaking and Excavation: Plan the structure layout and begin earth excavation and trenching after site clearance.
c. Foundation: Construct the foundation according to the architect’s drawings, including its size, depth, length, breadth, and type (e.g., rubble packing or raft and beams). Apply waterproofing coatings after casting the roofing slab.
d. Superstructure: Design columns and beams to support the building structure, distributing loads safely. After casting the roofing slab, apply the necessary waterproofing coatings.
e. Stairs: Follow Vastu principles for stair placement, if possible. Otherwise, adapt to building constraints. Consider various stair designs, including wood and glass.
f. Boundary Wall and Gates: Ideally, build compound walls before major construction begins to protect the site and materials. Consider modern gate designs.
8. Roof and Heat Protective Coatings
Implement truss work roofing, weather-resistant barriers, waterproofing coatings, rainscreens, and green roofs to reduce heat.
9. Electrical and Lighting
Complete electrical and lighting work after masonry is done. Follow electrical wiring guidelines.
10. Interior Design
Execute interior work based on the architect’s drawings.
Plastering work can commence after initial electrical and plumbing work. Plastering not only strengthens the building but also protects it from weather and enhances its appearance.
12. Initial Plumbing
Plumbing work can start once plastering is complete for bathroom walls.
Apply cement primer after initial wiring and plumbing work.
Begin flooring work after wiring and primer coat application on interior walls. Choose from various flooring options like ceramic tiles, vitrified tiles, clay tiles, granite, marble, wood, or epoxy flooring, based on your preferences and requirements.
15. Cabinets, Interior Works, Crockery Shelves
Install cabinets, shelves, and kitchen fixtures using materials such as wood, multi-wood, MDF, plywood, ACP, stainless steel, etc. This work can start after initial wiring and primer coat application.
16. Finishing Plumbing Works
Complete plumbing works after the tiling is finished.
17. Finishing Electrical and Lighting Works
Finish electrical and lighting work just before applying the final coat of paint.
18. Completion Certificate
Apply for a completion certificate from local authorities, complying with building rules. This certificate is necessary for obtaining water connections and other utilities.
19. Hardscaping and Landscaping
After your home is built, focus on hardscaping, including driveways, patios, and walkways, followed by landscaping, including irrigation, grass planting, tree planting, and outdoor lighting.
20. Final Cleanup
Remove debris left over from the construction process inside and outside the home.
21. Moving In
Finally, it’s time to move into your newly constructed home and begin enjoying the fruits of your labour.