Estimation is a scientific method of calculating the approximate cost of an engineering project before its execution. In other words, a cost estimate for a construction project is the estimated cost of the project based on designs and requirements.
As well as skills, experience, and foresight estimating requires a thorough understanding of construction procedures and the costs of materials and labour.
Estimation of Civil Engineering Projects
Cost estimates are calculated based on plans and specifications. Assuming no unusual or unexpected circumstances arise, the actual cost of the proposed work should not differ by more than 5 to 10% from the approximate cost estimate.
Why is it necessary to do an estimation?
- It assists in determining the project’s approximate cost to determine its feasibility in terms of funds and ensure financial resources if the proposal is approved.
- Calculation of the necessary building materials, such as cement, sand and steel.
- It is to prepare tenders for work and to verify the contractor’s work progress.
- Work schedule and payments schedule for the contractor.
- According to detailed estimations of work quantities, resources are allocated to different project activities. The durations are part of the overall planning and scheduling of the project.
What is a complete estimate?
A detailed estimate is referred to as a “complete estimate”. It is the estimate of the total charges of all work-related items in addition to the primary contract.
- The cost of Land includes surveying, taxes, building access roads, title examination, and deed execution.
- Cost of legal expenses.
- Cost of the main contract, materials, labour and supervision.
- Engineering entails the plan design estimate, the payment of a sanction fee, and monitoring.
- Contingency 5% of the total work value.
- The permit fee for water and electricity during and after construction.
- Transportation cost.
What are the impacts of site conditions on the overall cost?
- Depending on the type of work, a different construction method is required. Construction can be of a simple house or office, or it can be of an already operational dam, tunnel, multistory building, airport, bridge, or road.
- Each of these works necessitates a unique set of construction techniques, machinery, and formwork.
- The quality of labour and the output vary with location. Include the scale and wages of local skilled and non-skilled labourers. Weather conditions have a significant impact on output and, consequently, on the overall cost.
- The method of construction is affected by ground conditions. For example, excavation can be dry, wet, hard, soft, shallow, or deep, necessitating varying levels of work.
- The project may take place in open regions such as fields or congested areas such as near or on public roadways, requiring considerable monitoring, lighting, and control efforts, among other things.
- Another aspect is the availability of a sufficient quantity of high-quality materials.
- The manner of construction is also influenced by the availability of construction machinery.
- Transportation of materials.
- Sometimes temporary or permanent road access to the site is built for smooth operations.
What are the different types of estimation?
There are two main types of estimates, 1 Rough cost estimate and 2 Detailed estimates. Depending upon the purpose of the estimate, the following are some examples of detailed estimates.
- Contractor’s estimate
- Engineer’s estimate
- Progress estimate
- Annual Maintenance Or Repair Estimate
What are the methods of detailed estimation?
(1) individual or separate wall method
(2) centerline method.
- Measure the measurements, length, breadth, and height or depth, using the working drawings as a guide (plan, elevation and section).
- Special attention to the wall junctions, corners, and wall meeting locations.
- For symmetrical footings, any of the above-given approaches estimate earthwork in foundations, foundation concrete, foundation and plinth brickwork, and brickwork in the superstructure.
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